Gestational diabetes affects healthy women who have not suffered from this disease before. If hyperglycaemia is detected only during pregnancy, this is called gestational diabetes. This condition usually resolves spontaneously after childbirth. Learn more about gestational diabetes symptoms.
What is gestational diabetes?
Gestational diabetes is a so-called transient endocrine disorder. They are diagnosed on the basis of elevated blood glucose levels. In some cases, glucose may also be present in the urine.
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed at various stages of pregnancy. Ultimately, to minimize the effects of concomitant diabetes, it is advisable to perform an oral glucose load test early.
Misdiagnosed gestational diabetes can, above all, lead to:
- fetal macrosomia (excessive fetal growth), which is associated with an increased risk of newborn hypoglycaemia
- premature delivery
- fetal hypoxia
- uteroplacental perfusion disorder (RUPP), which means abnormal blood flow between the mother and the fetus
Symptoms of gestational diabetes
- Several symptoms are recognized that allow most to diagnose gestational diabetes:
- blurred vision
- frequent infections, including bladder, vaginal and skin infections
- increased urination
- nausea and vomiting
- weight loss despite increased appetite
- The risk of gestational diabetes increases with the following:
- age over 35 years
- burdened family history of type II diabetes
- expected birth weight over 4500 grams
- burdened obstetric interview
- high blood pressure
- preeclampsia or labor eclampsia
- too much amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios)
- inexplicable spontaneous miscarriages or stillbirths
- overweight before pregnancy
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- early pregnancy or pre-diabetes mellitus
- decreased glucose tolerance or decreased glycaemia
The basic test that is used to diagnose gestational diabetes is urine and blood analysis. Currently, almost every pregnant woman has diabetes tests. They should be done at least twice. First at the very beginning and then around the twenty-fourth week of pregnancy.
Diagnostics for diabetes should always be ordered by obstetricians. If the results obtained show a glucose concentration above normal, a glucose load test must be performed. Only when the result of this test is abnormal can a woman develop gestational diabetes.
How to prepare for a glucose load test?
You should be on an empty stomach, i.e. at least 8 hours after your last meal.
During the last three days before the test, you should not modify your diet or increase the amount of exercise. You should lead your traditional life.
Drink glucose solution in small sips within about 5 minutes. (drinking fast glucose increases the risk of vomiting). The waiting time for subsequent blood donations should be spent sitting and resting.